What Are The Four Functions Of The CPU?

There are certain functions of the processor which a beginner needs to know. You have come to the right place, even if you are not a beginner and want to learn about the part of the CPU. Please read this guide till the end to learn about every detail of a central processing unit. 

The CPU is considered the heart of the computer, without which it cannot operate. It is sometimes called a heart and sometimes a brain, and vice versa for the motherboard when they are compared to each other. Both are integral parts of a gaming computer to work efficiently. It is very similar to the human brain as we cannot perform anything without its orders. The CPU gives the operations and orders to the remaining components for them to work in a certain way, the same as our brain. 

CPU definition and the four functions of the CPU:

The central processing unit, aka CPU, is responsible for the guide and tasks on our computer systems. It sends information for other components to execute. The following are the basic functions of the CPU:

Here’s the list of four functions of the CPU:

  • Fetch
  • Decode
  • Execute
  • Store

Let us now get into the details of each of these functions for you. And to understand the role of each one of them. The CPU operations run around data which is circulated in the above cycle:

Fetching the Data:

If you have seen the Matrix movie, each function’s information in an address helps to differentiate it from others. The address is taken from the program we wish to perform on our computer. Once we track the instructions, the CPU executes the action and decodes the information in the next step.

Decoding the Information:

This information is then decoded and translated into Assembly instructions for further action. That is then translated into binary instructions that the processor can understand. This translation of information into binary instructions is termed decoding. Read more about the thermal paste removing from CPU Pins.


There are three things that a processor can do depending on the situation while executing the instructions: Jump to a different address, do its calculations with ALU or move data from the primary location to the secondary. 

Storing the information:

After going through the first three steps, now there’s time for storing the information. Then this output is written into the memory for further work. These were the four essential features of a CPU. Now let us get more into the details to get a more detailed look at the importance of a processor.

Now there’s a certain speed for each CPU in our computers. If you have not updated your processor and you’re using an old one, then its speed must be slowed down significantly. That speed in computer language is termed, Hertz. A computer’s speed is measured in gigahertz or GHz. The smallest of steps, actions, or tasks a computer performs is based on the number of GHz it possesses. 

If your CPU is faster or has more Hertz, it can perform the simplest tasks very quickly. There are different things that enhance the CPU performance apart from the speed: cache size, bus speed, and processor design. These things must be kept into consideration while buying a CPU for a new gaming computer. 

The cores of Processors:

Having a multi-core processor would mean that you can perform multiple actions at the same time. The latest PCs have quad-core or more, increasing overall performance significantly. The highly advanced software could only work if your computer has a multi-core processor. The same goes for high-end games, so make sure you buy the latest technology while building a new gaming computer for yourself. 

Testing the performance of a Processor:

Following are the steps through which you can test the performance of your gaming processor: 

  • Various tools and extensions on the internet can test your processor’s performance, but these tools are heavy and may put pressure on your CPU. RAM, CPU, graphics card, and some other parts are responsible for the overall speed of your gaming computer and not only the processor. So you should use the right benchmarks for testing all the components simultaneously rather than just the CPU.
  • The name of the free tool that can evaluate the processor is Cinebench. There’s another one that is paid software, namely: Sandra. With a minimal budget, you can buy these tools for yourself.

After buying these tools, you can test them by reading the basic instructions. This way, they will be able to show you which component is performing well and giving the maximum speed to your gaming PC

The information provided in this guide is purely informational. With time as this is valid for the year 2022. As technology seems to change every year, you need to be aware of that. However, we try our best to update the information at the right time for our readers. Now we head to some essential terms of a gaming processor that you all must know:

Binary code:

Ones and Zeros sequence in your computer as a language CPU understands. It translates all the data, and the processor works accordingly. Read more about CPU Latency.


The complete form of ALU is: Arithmetical Logical Unit. It is responsible for all the logical and mathematical operations in your computer.

Program Counter:

It is a place that tracks the instructions sent by the processor. Then the CPU executes the information accordingly.


Speed performed by the CPU per second.


The more cores your CPU has, the more activities it can perform simultaneously with speed.

Frequently Asked Questions

What is the function of the CPU in a computer system? What are its subunits?

The role and function of a CPU are to give a guide to other components to perform. The subunits of the CPU are ALU and control unit CU.

Final words:

If you have more queries related to CPU or other PC components, you can visit our website: gamingzaming.com, for knowledgeable guides. If you feel we missed out on some information and want to guide us, please feel free to share your thoughts. We keep updating our content for new users, so the recommendations are always valued.

Thanks for reading!